設定 MariaDB / MySQL 真・UTF-8 編碼

MariaDB 遺傳了 MySQL 的老問題,utf8 是假的 UTF-8,utf8mb4 才是真的 UTF-8。

參照:

依照我的 CentOS 做出對應修改。

改 /etc/opt/rh/rh-mariadb102/my.cnf.d/mariadb-server.cnf:

[client]
default-character-set = utf8mb4
[mysql]
default-character-set = utf8mb4
[mysqld]
character-set-server = utf8mb4
character-set-client-handshake = FALSE
[mariadb]
character_set_server = utf8mb4
character_set_client = utf8mb4

加上這些設定敘述。

重啟 MariaDB 服務:

> sudo systemctl restart rh-mariadb102-mariadb

確認一下狀態:

> sudo systemctl status rh-mariadb102-mariadb

進去 MariaDB 看一下現在的編碼:

show variables like 'char%';
show variables like 'collation%';

會看到像這樣滿滿的 utf8mb4

+--------------------------+---------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+--------------------------+---------+
| character_set_client | utf8mb4 |
| character_set_connection | utf8mb4 |
| character_set_database | utf8mb4 |
| character_set_filesystem | binary |
| character_set_results | utf8mb4 |
| character_set_server | utf8mb4 |
| character_set_system | utf8 |
| character_sets_dir | |
+--------------------------+---------+
+----------------------+--------------------+
| Variable_name | Value |
+----------------------+--------------------+
| collation_connection | utf8mb4_general_ci |
| collation_database | utf8mb4_general_ci |
| collation_server | utf8mb4_general_ci |
+----------------------+--------------------+

檢視 database、table、column 的編碼

檢視 database 編碼:

SELECT default_character_set_name
FROM information_schema.SCHEMATA
WHERE schema_name = "schemaname";

檢視 table 編碼:

SELECT CCSA.character_set_name
FROM information_schema.`TABLES` T, information_schema.`COLLATION_CHARACTER_SET_APPLICABILITY` CCSA
WHERE CCSA.collation_name = T.table_collation
AND T.table_schema = "schemaname"
AND T.table_name = "tablename";

檢視 column 編碼:

SELECT character_set_name
FROM information_schema.`COLUMNS`
WHERE table_schema = "schemaname"
AND table_name = "tablename"
AND column_name = "columnname";

以上來自 〈How do I see what character set a MySQL database / table / column is?〉。

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